General notion of Psychology as science.
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Psychology is assigned to a special part in the system of sciences.
First, it is assumed that the psychology studies the most complicated field
of science known to the man kind, since psychics is the virture of a highly
Aristotelian also considered that the priority should be given to the study
of the human soul among researches "in the other fields of knowledge".
Since it is the knowledge about the high elevation and amazement of the human
"About the soul" is the name of his treatise.
Second, the science of Psychology occupies a special place since it merges
the subject and the object.
Example. A person is born. First he is small and does not remember himself.
But his development goes fast. His physical and mental abilities are formed.
He learns to go, see, understand, and speak. By means of these abilities he
learns the world. It starts to operate in him. But a person has questions: «
Who am I? », « what am I? ». And later «what for am I»? Mental abilities and
functions are for a child an agent for studying an external world. Then he learns
The same process can be seen in scale of all mankind. In an ancient society
people struggled for existence. They extracted fire, hunted, were at war, studied
Opportunities of mankind grew gradually. People have framed material and spiritual
culture. There was writing, art, sciences. And a person asked himself a question:
what enables him to create and investigate? How is his intellect arranged?
This moment was a birth of a self-consciousness of mankind. This moment was
a birth of psychological knowledge.
Before the human reflection was preoccupied with the cognition of the universe
but now it is reversed to the inner world of the human being. The human being
with the help of the cognition begins to study the reflections of souls.
Third, besides, there is a special feature, in the psychology which presents
unique practical means of application.
To learn how to control your own psycho effects, functions, and abilities is
the task which is more grandiosity than the grandiosity in the space. It is
noted that while the human being is studying his soul, the human being will
be transforming his own being.
The science of psychology is not only the science which studies the human
being, but it also participates in construction and creation of the mentality
of human beings.
Psychology is rather young science.
Psychology as science became established more than 100 years ego.
In 1879 the German psychologist Mister Wundt opened the first laboratory of
experimental psychology in Leipzig. The psychology has arisen on crossing of
two areas of knowledge: natural sciences and philosophy.
Any science has some everyday experience as the basis. For example, physics
leans on knowledge of movement and falling of bodies, of light and a sound,
heat and many other things. We collide with it every day.
The mathematics too starts with representations about numbers, forms. They
start to be formed already at preschool age.
But it is quiet different with psychology. Everyday psychological knowledge
is concrete. They are adhered to concrete situations, concrete people, and specific
The scientific psychology aspires to generalizations. For this purpose it uses
The scientific psychology searches and finds generalizing concepts. These concepts
enable to understand tendencies and laws of development of a person and his
Everyday psychological knowledge has intuitive character. It is acquired practice.
Such way is especially precisely visible among children. They have got good
psychological intuition. It is reached by daily and hourly tests. Children subject
adults to these tests. And adults not always guess about it.
Everyday psychology differs from scientific one by the fact that scientific
psychological knowledge is rational and realized.
The following difference of everyday psychology from scientific one consists
in ways of transfer of knowledge. As a rule the everyday psychology is hardly
transferred from the senior generation to younger. Children cannot and do not
wish at all to adopt experience of fathers. Each new generation, each young
man should get new experience himself.
In scientific psychology knowledge is transferred with big efficiency. Accumulation
and transfer of scientific knowledge occurs in scientific concepts and laws.
They are fixed in scientific literature and transferred by means of speech and
The following difference of everyday psychology from scientific one consists
in methods of acquiring knowledge. Observation and reflection serves in everyday
psychology as a method. In scientific psychology experiment is added to these
The main thing in an experimental method is that the researcher does not wait
for the phenomenon he is interested in. The researcher frames special conditions
for reception of the given phenomenon. After that the researcher defines law.
When an experimental method was introduced into psychology, it was issued in
an independent science.
Advantage of scientific psychology consists in an extensive, various and unique
material. Such material is inaccessible in all volume to any carrier of everyday
psychology. This material is accumulated and comprehended in special branches
of a psychological science. For example: age psychology, pedagogical psychology,
pathological psychology, a neuropsychology, labour psychology and engineering
psychology, social psychology, a zoo psychology, comparative psychology, clinical
psychology, pathological psychology of children's age, psychopathology and others.
In these areas various stages and levels of mental development of animals and
people are surveyed. Also we get acquainted with defects and illnesses of mentality,
with unusual working conditions, conditions of stress, information overloads
or information famine. The psychologist dilates a circle of research problems,
but also collides with the new phenomena.
Development of special branches of psychology is a method of the general psychology.
Such method is not present in everyday psychology.
Development of science reminds of the movement about a complex labyrinth. In
a labyrinth there is a set of deadlock courses. In order to choose correct way
it is necessary to have good intuition. And good intuition arises only at close
contact to life. A scientific psychologist should be simultaneously a good everyday
psychologist. The word "psychology" in translation means «science
about soul ». Presently instead of concept of "soul" the concept "mentality"
is shown, finds out the properties and consequently can be studied through them.
There is a lot of forms display of mentality. These are the facts of the behaviour,
not realized mental processes, the psychosomatic phenomena. It is results of
material and spiritual culture. In these facts the mentality is shown, finds
out the properties and consequently can be studied through them.
In the second decade of our century in psychology there was an important event.
It was named «revolution in psychology ». In a scientific press American psychologist
Watson's article appeared. He declared, that it is necessary to change a subject
of psychology. In his opinion psychology should be engaged not in the phenomena
of consciousness, but behavior. This direction received the name «behaviorism».
From history of occurrence of psychology we shall pass to sections and branches
Children's psychology is a branch of psychology. Children's psychology studies
laws of mental development of a child. In development of a child it is possible
to allocate series of age periods. Such as: infantile age, early age, preschool
age, younger school age, teenage age, early youthful age. In mental development
of children mastering historical experience of mankind matters. This historical
experience is gradually acquired due to maturing nervous system of a child.
Each age period has specific tasks of development.
Age psychology is a section of psychology. In this section development of
mentality at various age stages is studied. Also principles of transition from
one age stage to another are studied. Each age stage has the perception of world
around and culture. All these problems are solved by means of formation of new
kinds of behavior and activity.
The pedagogical psychology is a branch of psychology. It studies assignment
of social experience by an individual. And assignment of social experience should
occur in training.
Labour psychology is an area of psychology. It studies laws of formation in
various psychological mechanisms in work. It is possible to allocate the following
directions: rationalization of work and rest, dynamics of working capacity,
formation of professional motivation, and relationship in different communities.
Social psychology is a branch of psychology. It studies laws of behavior and
activity of people which belong to various social groups. And it also studies
psychological characteristics of these social groups.
Neuropsychology is a section of psychology. It studies cerebral mechanisms
on an example of local lesions of a brain. Bases have been incorporated by A.R.Lurija.
He has developed the theory of systemic dynamic localization of mental processes.
Pathopsychology is a branch of psychology. It studies features of mental activity
at mental or somatopathies diseases.
Engineering psychology is a branch of psychology. It studies interaction of
a person and technical devices. The directions of engineering psychology are
- Studying of structure of activity and the activity of a person-operator,
- Engineering-psychological projection,
- Psychological maintenance of professional activities
Zoopsychology is a section of psychology. It is devoted to displays and laws
of evolution of mentality of animals. It also studies preconditions of occurrence
of human consciousness.
The comparative psychology is a section of psychology. It analyzes evolution
of mentality. Here there is an integration of the data received in a zoopsychology,
historical and ethnic psychology. As a result of the analysis the conclusions
about similar properties of mental processes of animals and a person are done.
Qualitative differences which have led to development of labor activity, public
life, speech and consciousness of a person are allocated.
Historical psychology — studies a parentage and development of consciousness,
a person, interpersonal attitudes, and features of socialization in different
cultures and economic conditions. The core in this direction is that the psychologist
deal does not with an abstract person, but with the person of the certain country
and an epoch. And this person cooperates with people. Sociogenethis regualities
are a subject of historical psychology and ethnopsychology.
I choose children's psychology from all these sections. Many sciences are engaged
in studying a child such as: pedagogic, psychology, anatomy, physiology, hygiene,
pediatrics. Observation occupies a very important place in science. And the
basic method of studying the mental development of a child is an experiment.
Adults should solve educational problems every day. In this situation parents
are in more favourable position. They can observe the child constantly. And
experts do not have such an opportunity. Close communication of family with
experts helps to solve many problems correctly. Special interest in educational
process is shown with children's psychology.
For parents it is necessary to have knowledge of methods, receptions of education,
psychology of the child. Parents require knowledge how to behave in difficult
situations. How to behave if you were mistaken, were in a hurry or were not
right? It is well-known, that happy parents grow happy children. It is possible
to give a child only those things which you possess yourself. The science psychology
will help parents to live with the children in harmony.
The psychological science knows much about laws of training of a child, about
peculiarities of his development. During last years scientific representations
about relationship in family, about laws of dialogue between children and parents
were considerably enriched. But process of education of a person remains complex,
inconsistent, but always creative. Till now there is no and there can not be
a uniform formula, the uniform approach to our small persons. All of them are
individual, and everyone demands a special approach.
The psychology and pedagogic cannot deal only with a person who lives now.
Psychologists and teachers should think of a person who will be and who should
Psychologists and teachers do not plan him, do not program. A psychologist
and a teacher having special professional view see in each small person the
best, features and his future. If a teacher or psychologists don’t see the best
features in a child then they simply have to do nothings.
If a person is subjected to constant blame then life seems very hard. If a
person feels support then creative activity and mutual trust prevail.