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General notion of Psychology as science.

Университет Российской Академии Образования

Реферат по английскому языку

Москва

2006

Psychology is assigned to a special part in the system of sciences.

First, it is assumed that the psychology studies the most complicated field of science known to the man kind, since psychics is the virture of a highly integral matter.

Aristotelian also considered that the priority should be given to the study of the human soul among researches "in the other fields of knowledge". Since it is the knowledge about the high elevation and amazement of the human souls.

"About the soul" is the name of his treatise.

Second, the science of Psychology occupies a special place since it merges the subject and the object.

Example. A person is born. First he is small and does not remember himself. But his development goes fast. His physical and mental abilities are formed. He learns to go, see, understand, and speak. By means of these abilities he learns the world. It starts to operate in him. But a person has questions: « Who am I? », « what am I? ». And later «what for am I»? Mental abilities and functions are for a child an agent for studying an external world. Then he learns himself.

The same process can be seen in scale of all mankind. In an ancient society people struggled for existence. They extracted fire, hunted, were at war, studied the nature.

Opportunities of mankind grew gradually. People have framed material and spiritual culture. There was writing, art, sciences. And a person asked himself a question: what enables him to create and investigate? How is his intellect arranged?

This moment was a birth of a self-consciousness of mankind. This moment was a birth of psychological knowledge.

Before the human reflection was preoccupied with the cognition of the universe but now it is reversed to the inner world of the human being. The human being with the help of the cognition begins to study the reflections of souls.

Third, besides, there is a special feature, in the psychology which presents unique practical means of application.

To learn how to control your own psycho effects, functions, and abilities is the task which is more grandiosity than the grandiosity in the space. It is noted that while the human being is studying his soul, the human being will be transforming his own being.

The science of psychology is not only the science which studies the human being, but it also participates in construction and creation of the mentality of human beings.

Psychology is rather young science.

Psychology as science became established more than 100 years ego.

In 1879 the German psychologist Mister Wundt opened the first laboratory of experimental psychology in Leipzig. The psychology has arisen on crossing of two areas of knowledge: natural sciences and philosophy.

Any science has some everyday experience as the basis. For example, physics leans on knowledge of movement and falling of bodies, of light and a sound, heat and many other things. We collide with it every day.

The mathematics too starts with representations about numbers, forms. They start to be formed already at preschool age.

But it is quiet different with psychology. Everyday psychological knowledge is concrete. They are adhered to concrete situations, concrete people, and specific targets.

The scientific psychology aspires to generalizations. For this purpose it uses scientific concepts.

The scientific psychology searches and finds generalizing concepts. These concepts enable to understand tendencies and laws of development of a person and his specific features.

Everyday psychological knowledge has intuitive character. It is acquired practice.

Such way is especially precisely visible among children. They have got good psychological intuition. It is reached by daily and hourly tests. Children subject adults to these tests. And adults not always guess about it.

Everyday psychology differs from scientific one by the fact that scientific psychological knowledge is rational and realized.

The following difference of everyday psychology from scientific one consists in ways of transfer of knowledge. As a rule the everyday psychology is hardly transferred from the senior generation to younger. Children cannot and do not wish at all to adopt experience of fathers. Each new generation, each young man should get new experience himself.

In scientific psychology knowledge is transferred with big efficiency. Accumulation and transfer of scientific knowledge occurs in scientific concepts and laws. They are fixed in scientific literature and transferred by means of speech and language.

The following difference of everyday psychology from scientific one consists in methods of acquiring knowledge. Observation and reflection serves in everyday psychology as a method. In scientific psychology experiment is added to these methods.

The main thing in an experimental method is that the researcher does not wait for the phenomenon he is interested in. The researcher frames special conditions for reception of the given phenomenon. After that the researcher defines law. When an experimental method was introduced into psychology, it was issued in an independent science.

Advantage of scientific psychology consists in an extensive, various and unique material. Such material is inaccessible in all volume to any carrier of everyday psychology. This material is accumulated and comprehended in special branches of a psychological science. For example: age psychology, pedagogical psychology, pathological psychology, a neuropsychology, labour psychology and engineering psychology, social psychology, a zoo psychology, comparative psychology, clinical psychology, pathological psychology of children's age, psychopathology and others. In these areas various stages and levels of mental development of animals and people are surveyed. Also we get acquainted with defects and illnesses of mentality, with unusual working conditions, conditions of stress, information overloads or information famine. The psychologist dilates a circle of research problems, but also collides with the new phenomena.

Development of special branches of psychology is a method of the general psychology. Such method is not present in everyday psychology.

Development of science reminds of the movement about a complex labyrinth. In a labyrinth there is a set of deadlock courses. In order to choose correct way it is necessary to have good intuition. And good intuition arises only at close contact to life. A scientific psychologist should be simultaneously a good everyday psychologist. The word "psychology" in translation means «science about soul ». Presently instead of concept of "soul" the concept "mentality" is shown, finds out the properties and consequently can be studied through them.

There is a lot of forms display of mentality. These are the facts of the behaviour, not realized mental processes, the psychosomatic phenomena. It is results of material and spiritual culture. In these facts the mentality is shown, finds out the properties and consequently can be studied through them.

In the second decade of our century in psychology there was an important event. It was named «revolution in psychology ». In a scientific press American psychologist Watson's article appeared. He declared, that it is necessary to change a subject of psychology. In his opinion psychology should be engaged not in the phenomena of consciousness, but behavior. This direction received the name «behaviorism».

From history of occurrence of psychology we shall pass to sections and branches of psychology.

Children's psychology is a branch of psychology. Children's psychology studies laws of mental development of a child. In development of a child it is possible to allocate series of age periods. Such as: infantile age, early age, preschool age, younger school age, teenage age, early youthful age. In mental development of children mastering historical experience of mankind matters. This historical experience is gradually acquired due to maturing nervous system of a child. Each age period has specific tasks of development.

Age psychology is a section of psychology. In this section development of mentality at various age stages is studied. Also principles of transition from one age stage to another are studied. Each age stage has the perception of world around and culture. All these problems are solved by means of formation of new kinds of behavior and activity.

The pedagogical psychology is a branch of psychology. It studies assignment of social experience by an individual. And assignment of social experience should occur in training.

Labour psychology is an area of psychology. It studies laws of formation in various psychological mechanisms in work. It is possible to allocate the following directions: rationalization of work and rest, dynamics of working capacity, formation of professional motivation, and relationship in different communities.

Social psychology is a branch of psychology. It studies laws of behavior and activity of people which belong to various social groups. And it also studies psychological characteristics of these social groups.

Neuropsychology is a section of psychology. It studies cerebral mechanisms on an example of local lesions of a brain. Bases have been incorporated by A.R.Lurija. He has developed the theory of systemic dynamic localization of mental processes.

Pathopsychology is a branch of psychology. It studies features of mental activity at mental or somatopathies diseases.

Engineering psychology is a branch of psychology. It studies interaction of a person and technical devices. The directions of engineering psychology are as follows:

  1. Studying of structure of activity and the activity of a person-operator,
  2. Engineering-psychological projection,
  3. Psychological maintenance of professional activities

Zoopsychology is a section of psychology. It is devoted to displays and laws of evolution of mentality of animals. It also studies preconditions of occurrence of human consciousness.

The comparative psychology is a section of psychology. It analyzes evolution of mentality. Here there is an integration of the data received in a zoopsychology, historical and ethnic psychology. As a result of the analysis the conclusions about similar properties of mental processes of animals and a person are done. Qualitative differences which have led to development of labor activity, public life, speech and consciousness of a person are allocated.

Historical psychology — studies a parentage and development of consciousness, a person, interpersonal attitudes, and features of socialization in different cultures and economic conditions. The core in this direction is that the psychologist deal does not with an abstract person, but with the person of the certain country and an epoch. And this person cooperates with people. Sociogenethis regualities are a subject of historical psychology and ethnopsychology.

I choose children's psychology from all these sections. Many sciences are engaged in studying a child such as: pedagogic, psychology, anatomy, physiology, hygiene, pediatrics. Observation occupies a very important place in science. And the basic method of studying the mental development of a child is an experiment.

Adults should solve educational problems every day. In this situation parents are in more favourable position. They can observe the child constantly. And experts do not have such an opportunity. Close communication of family with experts helps to solve many problems correctly. Special interest in educational process is shown with children's psychology.

For parents it is necessary to have knowledge of methods, receptions of education, psychology of the child. Parents require knowledge how to behave in difficult situations. How to behave if you were mistaken, were in a hurry or were not right? It is well-known, that happy parents grow happy children. It is possible to give a child only those things which you possess yourself. The science psychology will help parents to live with the children in harmony.

The psychological science knows much about laws of training of a child, about peculiarities of his development. During last years scientific representations about relationship in family, about laws of dialogue between children and parents were considerably enriched. But process of education of a person remains complex, inconsistent, but always creative. Till now there is no and there can not be a uniform formula, the uniform approach to our small persons. All of them are individual, and everyone demands a special approach.

The psychology and pedagogic cannot deal only with a person who lives now.

Psychologists and teachers should think of a person who will be and who should be.

Psychologists and teachers do not plan him, do not program. A psychologist and a teacher having special professional view see in each small person the best, features and his future. If a teacher or psychologists don’t see the best features in a child then they simply have to do nothings.

If a person is subjected to constant blame then life seems very hard. If a person feels support then creative activity and mutual trust prevail.